The gingiva is the part of oral mucosa that covers the alveolar processes of jaws and surrounds the neck of teeth.

The diseases of gums are of two types:

Gingival disease : It is the inflammation present in Gingiva (gums).
Periodontal disease :- It is the extension of inflammatory process to the supporting tissues of tooth.

Symptoms of Gingival disease :

Gingival bleeding
Bad breath
Colour Changes in gingiva.
Change in surface texture of gingiva.
Change in position of gingiva.
Loose teeth.
Gingival enlargements.

Risk Factors :

Hormonal change in girls / women.
Other illnesses like Aids, Cancers etc.
Genetic susceptibility


Scaling and root planning:
Medications: – Medicines are used with treatment like surgery, scaling etc.

Surgical treatment:

Flap surgery:- This involves lifting back the gums and removing the tartar. The gums then sutured back in place so that gums fit snugly around the tooth again.
Surgery with grafts:- Bone grafts is placed in the area of bone loss which later promotes bone growth.
Tissue grafting known as guided tissue regeneration is also used in some cases. This technique help the bone and connection tissue to regrow.

How to keep teeth and gums healthy:

Brush your teeth twice a day.
Floss regularly.
Visit the dentist regularly for check up and professional cleaning.
Don’t smoke.

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